- Cretaceous Age
- Tegana Formation
- Kem-Kem, North Africa
- Specimen measures approx. 2 9/16″ x 2 1/2″ and comes on the custom made stand with ID label as shown.
Fossils of this dinosaur were recovered at the Kem Kem Formation in the Tafilalt Oasis region of Morocco, near the site of the ancient city of Sijilmassa, for which it was named. Canadian paleontologist Dale Russell named
Sigilmassasaurus in 1996, from the ancient city and the Greek word sauros (“lizard”). A single species was named, S. brevicollis, which is derived from the Latin brevis (“short”) and collum (“neck”), because the neck vertebrae are very short from front to back. Russell also described another specimen as a possible second species of Sigilmassasaurus, although he chose not to name it due to its incomplete nature.Sigilmassasaurus comes from red sandstone sediments in southern Morocco, which are known by various names, including the Grès rouges infracénomaniens, Continental Red Beds, and lower Kem Kem Beds. These rocks date back to the Cenomanian, the earliest stage of the Late Cretaceous Period, approximately 100 to 94 million years ago. The holotype, or original specimen, of S. brevicollis, CMN 41857, is a single posterior neck vertebra, although Russell referred about fifteen other vertebrae found in the same formation to the species. Other material had been found in Egypt, and was known as “Spinosaurus B”. Russell considered this Egyptian specimen, IPHG 1922 X45, to belong to Sigilmassasaurus or a closely related animal, naming it as a Sigilmassasaurus sp. A second Sigilmassasaurus sp. was by him based on specimen CMN 41629, an anterior dorsal vertebra. “Spinosaurus B” would be intermediate in build between this latter Sigilmassasaurus sp. and S. brevicollis. Russell created the family Sigilmassasauridae for these animals. The neck vertebrae of these dinosaurs are wider from side to side, about 50%, than they are long from front to back. Whether the neck as a whole was particularly short, is unknown: the holotype vertebra is a cervicodorsal, from the transition between the neck and the back, which would not be long anyway. The exact position of Sigilmassasaurus within the theropod family tree is unknown, but it belongs somewhere inside the theropod subgroup known as Tetanurae. Some scientists do not believe that Sigilmassasaurus is a valid genus. In 1996, Paul Sereno and colleagues described a Carcharodontosaurus skull (SGM-Din-1) from Morocco, as well as a neck vertebra (SGM-Din-3) which resembled that of “Spinosaurus B,” which they therefore synonymized with Carcharodontosaurus. A later study went further, calling Sigilmassasaurus itself a junior synonym of Carcharodontosaurus. More recently, however, it was revealed that SGM-Din-3, which was used to synonymize Carcharodontosaurus and “Spinosaurus B” was not actually associated with SGM-Din-1, the Carcharodontosaurus skull described in 1996, and shows clear differences with the holotype of Carcharodontosaurus. Other features of “Spinosaurus B” also clearly differ from Carcharodontosaurus, lending support to the notion that it (and therefore Sigilmassasaurus) is a separate taxon. The same study claimed that the tail vertebrae by Russell assigned to the species were in fact those of iguanodonts. A study in 2013 confirmed that Sigilmassasaurus was valid and an indeterminate member of the Tetanurae. In Ibrahim et al. (2014), the specimens of Sigilmassasaurus was referred to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus together with “Spinosaurus B” as the neotype and Spinosaurus maroccanus was considered as a nomen dubium following the conclusions of the other papers.